Orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (Improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both.
Treatment can focus on dental displacement only, or can deal with the control and modification of facial growth (dentofacial orthopedics). Orthodontic treatment can be carried out for purely aesthetic reasons and it is often prescribed for practical reasons, providing the patient with a functionally improved bite (occlusion).
The basic makeup of every tooth is the same, and they all grow out from down within the jawbones. And although some people's adult teeth grow out from the gums at the right angle and with the right spacing, many people's teeth don't. Some teeth may grow in crooked or overlapping, In other people, some teeth may grow in rotated or twisted. Some people's mouths are too small, and this crowds the teeth and causes them to shift into crooked positions. In some cases a person's upper and lower jaw aren't the same size, when the lower half of the jaw is too small, it makes the upper jaw hang over resulting in a condition called overbite, when the opposite happens it is called an underbite. These conditions are called malocclusion
Malocclusion can be a problem because it interferes with proper chewing, crooked teeth that aren't aligned properly don't work as wells as straight ones. Because chewing is the first part of eating and digestion, it is important that teeth can do the job. Teeth that are not aligned correctly can also be harder to brush and keep clean, which can lead to tooth decay and cavities. And finally, many people who have crooked teeth may feel self-conscious about how they look; braces can help them feel better about their smile and whole face.
If the main goal of the treatment is the dental displacement a fixed multibracket therapy is used where orthodontic wires are inserted into dental braces that can be made of stainless steel or a more esthetic ceramic material